Addiction Facts – Alcohol
Most people consume alcohol socially to relax, have fun, be part of a group, out of curiosity, and to escape from physical and/or psychological pain. Many of the reasons young people use alcohol are the same reasons adults use alcohol.
What causes alcohol addiction? Many factors influence a person’s initial alcohol use. Personality characteristics, peer pressure, and psychological stress can all contribute to the early stage of alcohol abuse. These factors are less important as alcohol use continues and the person repeatedly experiences the potent pharmacological effects.
This chemical action, which stimulates certain brain systems, produces the addiction, while other psychological and social factors become less and less important in influencing the individual’s behavior. When the pharmacological action of a drug dominates the individual’s behavior and the normal psychological and social control of behavior is no longer effective, the addiction is fully developed. This self-perceived “loss of control” is a common feature of alcohol addiction and reflects the biological nature of the problem. People who are physically dependent on alcohol usually develop a tolerance. This means that they need to drink more and more to get the same effect.
School and job performance may suffer either from the after-effects of drinking or from actual intoxication on the job or at school; child care or household responsibilities may be neglected; and alcohol-related absences may occur from school or job.
Most alcohol-related illnesses, social problems, accidents and deaths are caused by “problem drinking.” This term describes alcohol use that causes problems in a person’s life, but does not include physical dependence. Problem drinking is four times as common as severe alcohol dependence.
Research shows that alcohol use among Ontarians age 18 and older was 87 per cent in 1992 and 79 per cent in 1999. A 2001 survey of Ontario students in grades 7 to OAC found that 66 per cent reported using alcohol in the past year, and 27 per cent had been drunk at least once in the past four weeks.
In general, men drink more than women do, and are almost twice as likely to have drinking problems.
People who drink alcohol on a regular basis become tolerant to many of the unpleasant effects, and thus are able to drink more before suffering these effects. Yet even with increased consumption, many such drinkers don’t appear intoxicated. Because they continue to work and socialize reasonably well, their deteriorating physical condition may go unrecognized by others until severe damage develops – or until they are hospitalized for other reasons and suddenly experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological addiction to alcohol may occur with regular use of even relatively moderate daily amounts. It may also occur in people who consume alcohol only under certain conditions, such as before and during social occasions. This form of addiction refers to a craving for alcohol’s psychological effects, although not necessarily in amounts that produce serious intoxication. For psychologically addicted drinkers, the lack of alcohol tends to make them anxious and, in some cases, panicky.
Physical addiction to alcohol occurs in consistently heavy drinkers. Since their bodies have adapted to the presence of alcohol, they suffer alcohol withdrawal if they suddenly stop drinking. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms range from jumpiness, sleeplessness, sweating, and poor appetite, to tremors (the “shakes”), convulsions, hallucinations, and sometimes death.
Alcohol Withdrawal symptoms include but are not limited to:
It takes about one hour for the liver of a person weighing 70 kg (154 lbs.) to process and eliminate eight to 10 grams of alcohol, or about two-thirds of the alcohol contained in a standard drink. This rate is constant, no matter how much alcohol has been consumed, or what food or non-alcoholic beverages are taken.
Drinking heavily usually results in a “hangover,” beginning eight to 12 hours after the last drink. Symptoms can include headache, nausea, diarrhea, shakiness and vomiting. A hangover is caused in part by acetaldehyde, a toxic chemical that is created as alcohol is processed by your liver. Other causes include dehydration and changes in hormone levels.
Some people think that having a drink before bed helps them to get to sleep. While alcohol does bring on sleep more quickly, it disturbs sleep patterns, and causes wakefulness in the night.
Extreme intoxication can kill, often as the result of the person “passing out,” vomiting and choking. A person who has been drinking heavily and is unconscious should be laid on his or her side and watched closely. Clammy skin, low body temperature, slow and laboured breathing and incontinence are signs of acute alcohol poisoning, which can be fatal. Seek emergency medical care.
Women who drink during pregnancy risk giving birth to a baby with behaviour problems, growth deficiency, developmental disability, head and facial deformities, joint and limb abnormalities and heart defects. The risk of bearing a child with these birth defects increases with the amount of alcohol consumed.
Alcohol damages the liver, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, and the heart. Alcoholics who do not quit drinking decrease life expectancy by 10 to 15 years.
Alcohol also can impair vision, impair sexual function, slow circulation, cause malnutrition, cause water retention (resulting in weight gain and bloating), lead to pancreatitis and skin disorders (such as middle-age acne), dilate blood vessels near the skin causing “brandy nose,” weaken the bones and muscles, and decrease immunity.
Alcoholics become obsessed to the exclusion of almost everything else. They drink despite the pleading of family and the stern advice of doctors. Although relationships with family and work may become completely severed, nothing, not even severe health problems, is enough to deter drinking.
The late-stage alcoholic suffers a host of fears, including fear of crowds and public places. Constant remorse and guilt is alleviated with more drinking. On top of mental disturbances, debts, legal problems, and homelessness may complicate his or her life. Late-stage addiction is characterized by cirrhosis and severe withdrawal symptoms if alcohol is withheld (shakes, delirium tremens, and convulsions). Without hospitalization or residency in a therapeutic community, late-stage alcoholics usually succumb to insanity and death.
The liver breaks down alcohol in the body and is therefore the chief site of alcohol damage. Liver damage may occur in three irreversible stages.
Alcohol in the liver also alters the production of digestive enzymes, preventing the absorption of fats and proteins and decreasing the absorption of the vitamins A, D, E, and K. The decreased production of enzymes also causes diarrhea.
Alcohol profoundly disturbs the structure and function of the central nervous system, disrupting the ability to retrieve and consolidate information. Even moderate alcohol consumption affects cognitive abilities, while larger amounts interfere with the oxygen supply to the brain, a possible cause of blackout or temporary amnesia during drunkenness.
Alcohol abuse destroys brain cells, producing brain deterioration and atrophy, and whether the organic brain damage and neuropsychological impairment linked to alcohol can be reversed is unknown.
Alcohol also alters the brain’s production of RNA (a genetic “messenger”), and serotonin, endorphins, and natural opiates whose function may be linked to the addictive process.
A neurological disorder called Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome results from Vitamin B deficiencies produced by alcoholism and the direct action of alcohol on the brain. Symptoms of this condition include amnesia, loss of short-term memory, disorientation, hallucinations, emotional disturbances, double vision, and loss of muscle control. Other effects include mental disorders such as increased aggression, antisocial behavior, depression, and anxiety.
Large amounts of alcohol may inflame the mouth, esophagus, and stomach, possibly causing cancer in these locations, especially in drinkers who smoke. Alcohol increases the stomach’s digestive enzymes, which can irritate the stomach wall, producing heartburn, nausea, gastritis, and ulcers. The stomach of a chronic drinker loses the ability to adequately move food and expel it into the duodenum, leaving some food always in the stomach, causing sluggish digestion and vomiting. Alcohol may also inflame the small and large intestines.
Moderate daily drinking may be good for the heart, but for many the risks outweigh the benefits. Even one binge may produce irregular heartbeats, and alcohol abusers experience increased risk of high blood pressure, heart attacks, heart arrhythmia, and heart disease.
Alcohol may cause cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle). Cessation of drinking aids recovery from this condition.